Canine Vaccines

What is the schedule for the core vaccinations for my dog?

(The information below is derived from the 2011 AAHA Canine Vaccination Guidelines.)

Vaccine

Type of vaccine

Age and frequency
of vaccination

Associated disease

Canine   Distemper  
Virus (CDV)*

Modified
Live Virus

Initial series of vaccine should be given at 6-8, 12, and 16 weeks of age.  Dogs should then receive a single booster vaccination no later than 1 year after completion of the initial series and be revaccinated every 3 years thereafter.

 

Infection with canine distemper results in a highly fatal systemic disease from respiratory, gastrointestinal, and neurologic abnormalities.

Canine   Adenovirus   Type-2*

Modified
Live Virus

Initial series of vaccine should be given at 6-8, 12, and 16 weeks of age.  Dogs should then receive a single booster vaccination no later than 1 year after completion of the initial series and be revaccinated every 3 years thereafter.

 

Canine adenovirus type-2 causes a mild respiratory disease but also produces a protective immune response against canine adenovirus type-1, the virus responsible for canine infectious hepatitis.

Canine   Parvovirus*

Modified
Live Virus

Initial series of vaccine should be given at 6-8, 12, and 16 weeks of age.  Dogs should then receive a single booster vaccination no later than 1 year after completion of the initial series and be revaccinated every 3 years thereafter.

 

Canine parvovirus infection causes a serious and potentially fatal gastrointestinal disease in unvaccinated dogs of any age.

Canine   Parainfluenza   Virus*

Modified
Live Virus

Initial series of vaccine should be given at 6-8, 12, and 16 weeks of age.  Dogs should then receive a single booster vaccination no later than 1 year after completion of the initial series and be revaccinated every 3 years thereafter.

 

Canine parainfluenza virus is one cause of “kennel cough” syndrome.  This virus causes mild upper respiratory disease in otherwise healthy dogs but more severe signs in puppies or debilitated dogs. This vaccine is often combined with the intranasal form of the Bordetella vaccine.

Rabies Virus


Killed Virus
                       

A single dose of vaccine should be given no earlier than 12 weeks of age. Revaccination is continued 1 year following the initial dose and every 3 years thereafter.

 

Rabies virus causes a fatal neurological disease, and infected dogs are a potential source for human infection.  State and local laws mandate rabies vaccination for dogs.

 *Components of the multivalent vaccine labeled DA2PP

Are there additional vaccines that my dog should receive beyond the core vaccinations?

Vaccine Type of vaccine Age and frequency

of vaccination
Associated disease
Canine Bordetella Modified Live Virus

Intraoral/Intranasal:  initial dose should be given at 6-8 weeks of age. A single dose is sufficient to provide immunity.  This vaccine should be boostered annually regardless of route of administration.

 

Bordetella is another cause of the “kennel cough” syndrome.  Infection in susceptible dogs generally causes a self-limiting, upper respiratory disease and rarely causes life-threatening disease in otherwise healthy animals.
Leptospirosis Killed vaccine

The initial series is given no earlier than 12 weeks of age and should be boostered 2-4 weeks later. Revaccination is continued on an annual basis thereafter.

 

Canine leptospirosis is a bacterial infection which can result in serious damage to the kidneys and liver in some susceptible dogs.  The disease can be transmitted directly between animal or indirectly through exposure of susceptible animals to a contaminated environment, especially one with stagnant or slow-moving bodies of water.
Lyme
(
Borrelia burgdorferi)
Killed Vaccine

The initial series is given no earlier than 12 weeks of age and should be boostered 2-4 weeks later. Revaccination is continued on an annual basis thereafter.  In addition to vaccination, prevention of canine Lyme disease includes regular utilization of tick control products.

 

Infection with (Borrelia burgdorferi), the causative agent of Lyme disease can cause clinical disease in some susceptible dogs.  Symptoms include fever, poor appetite, enlarged lymph nodes, and inflammatory joint disease.  There are isolated reports of Lyme disease resulting in heart and kidney function impairment or failure.